The Battle of Olustee: “The day is lost; you must go in and save the Corps.”

Sanderson, FL:  This has been a tough article for me to write because of the reasons in which it came to be.  In this tale from the trail, I try to walk through life and death under the hot Florida sun, both today and in 1864.  My reasons for going to Florida, and doing it on 40 minutes notice where extremely personal.  I had no chance to plan and was not even sure of the final destination until I had been on the road for 44 hours.  The weather threw me a number of curve balls and I was pushed to the limits of my endurance but 48 hours after I had left Kansas, I had arrived at my destination in Estero, Florida.  But we will talk about that in the paragraphs to come.  For now, let’s talk about the historical narrative of the Battle of Olustee; Florida’s most significant land battle of the US Civil War. 

The Union Army had established a number of enclaves along the Florida coast, to include the most significant one in Jacksonville in 1862.  For the most part, however, they had wisely decided to stay out of the interior of the State, for a number of tactical reasons.  This would change in the Winter of 1864.  History is divided on why the campaign was launched, but it really falls into two camps.  The first camp will tell you that President Lincoln was led to believe that the interior of northern Florida was ripe with pro-Union sentiment.  Though unlikely, this could be true.  After all, every State in the Confederacy, with the one exception of South Carolina, had provided at least one regiment of pro-Union white Soldiers.  Regions of States, such as eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina had provided thousands.  Western Virginia, even became its own state, loyal to the Federal cause.  Imagine my surprise when I learned that even Alabama supplied at least one regiment of Federal Cavalry.  So, this fact, and Lincoln with his eye on reelection may be why the operation was launched, but I don’t necessarily buy it.  The military reason for the offensive was to deprive the Confederate forces farther north of the food and salt resources of Florida.  Though in theory this makes sense, I am not convinced this is the reason for the campaign simply because, the Union Commander, Brigadier General Truman Seymour’s boss, Major General Quincy Gillmore, had left orders not to go on the offensive in the Florida interior.  I believe that Seymour’s military reputation was severely tarnished after his assault on Fort Wagner and he was looking for a military victory to rehabilitate his name.  In South Carolina, Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard had correctly ascertained Seymour’s plans and dispatched a Confederate Irish immigrant by the name Brigadier General Joseph Finnegan and the experienced and hard charging Georgia Brigade under Brigadier General Alfred Colquitt to make sure that Seymour would not gain redemption in Florida, at least.  

In late 1863 and very early 1864, the Federal troops in Jacksonville received new crops of draftees in the case of the white regiments and brand-new volunteers in the case of the USCT’s, to include the famous 54th Massachusetts Infantry.  Members of the 7th New Hampshire Infantry were also ordered, just prior to the campaign to turn in their battle tested Spencer repeating rifles and were in turn issued battle worn and often inoperable Springfield rifled muskets.  So poorly was the equipment, that many of the muskets failed to fire when combat began on that February afternoon.  To summarize the battle, the Confederate forces under Finnegan and Colquitt had their issues, but largely were able to exercise their will over the poorly led Federal troops.  The one bright spot on the battlefield for the Federals was indeed the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, who did not arrive on the battlefield until late in the fight and did a masterful job of covering the Federal retreat back to Jacksonville.  That said, the 54th again would distinguish itself for the evacuation of the Federal wounded from the Olustee field of battle.  There are reports that they filled a train car with wounded and hauled the railroad car back to Jacksonville by hand to ensure as many Federal wounded were able to escape Confederate capture as possible.  After the battle, Union forces would not again enter the interior of Florida during the war.

A few weeks ago, my aunt called me and let me know that she had cancer.  My aunt is my father’s sister and ever since he has passed, 16 years ago, I had sort of been his proxy with her.  I did not mind this, as she surely did love and miss her brother.  As we talked again, she told me that her cancer was terminal.  She has small cell lung cancer and liver cancer.  She is now too weak to take chemotherapy.  As these reports came in and kept getting darker, I felt myself being pulled on a trip I had not planned and truthfully did not want to make.   When my cousin contacted me and let me know that my aunt was asking for her mother and wanted to go to hospice, I could no longer sit by in Kansas.  Both of my parents died so fast and unexpectedly that there was no opportunity to say goodbye.  Now, my father’s sister was in hospice and I had to go.  I may be in between positions right now, money may be a little tight, but I was sitting at lunch talking with Household 6 and I could no longer just sit on the sidelines.  My first thought was to take my daughter Rooster, because she is a better assistant driver than Moose.  Moose also has a restricted license while Rooster has a full license and I didn’t have time to research how that would play out driving out of state.  But alas, Rooster, though in High School, is taking college courses and had college finals this week and could not go, so Moose was my copilot.  I went to his high school, pulled him from his class and told him he had 40 minutes to get home and pack, we were leaving immediately.  If you haven’t noticed, in The Traveler household, a lot of life happens behind the dashboard.  The road trip is the perfect opportunity to coach, guide and mentor your kids and really find out where they are in life; and we did have ample opportunity for that.  Unfortunately, heavy rains blanketed the Midwest and Southeast, significantly adding time to the trip; causing me to worry that we would not get to Florida in time.  The weather was so unfavorable, that I had to scrap plans of overnighting just south of Memphis, in Mississippi, instead, opting for Trumann, Arkansas. 

In Georgia, we lost additional time because my tire light indicator came on and, on our car, that dang thing never lies.  So, I found myself in front of Michael, the Manager at the local Goodyear garage in McDonough, Georgia; in need of a couple of new front tires.  Now that the car had a new set of shoes, we were able to make it to Valdosta, Georgia for the night.  Where my son would see his first naked woman.  I have to be honest; we were not prepared for what was seen when we entered the hotel lobby; for what has been seen cannot be unseen.  Some people don’t understand that see through gowns are really see through and they don’t need to be in the hotel lobby.  But now we just refer to the incident as “The Georgia Peach” and somehow, I feel we are all a little bit diminished by experiencing it.  I guess I will just sum it up by stating “you see the strangest things at an interstate hotel.”  By lunch time the next day, we had arrived at our destination where I met my sister, also part of Team Traveler.  My sister Beth, is my copy editor and proofs everything I write before you read it.  We had the opportunity to spend the afternoon with my aunt.  My cousin tells me that she perked up considerably with our visit and is now, at the time of this being written, is still fighting.  I like my aunt, she’s a tough bird!  As a post edit, since the time of writing, she passed peacefully a couple of weeks ago.  She fought as long as she could.

After spending the afternoon with my aunt, we crossed the “Alligator Alley” to Florida’s eastern coast and spent the evening and next day with my sister and brother in law.  I will tell you that Monday’s in May at Delray Beach in Florida are wonderful.  The beaches and water are warm, public parking is plentiful and we were able to spend a nice day with lunch at Boston’s, on the beach; for Tuesday we would be heading north again for Olustee and home.

We arrived at the Olustee State Historical Park around lunch time and there were two things that immediately came to my attention.  The first is that we were in a National Forest, Osceola National Forest to be exact, and there was a plethora of outdoor activity opportunities that were just waiting to be taken advantage of.  I spoke with a local resident, and he said that there was even great fishing within a couple of miles.  The other thing I noticed, is that on Route 90, which leads you to the battlefield, you pass about 6 prisons or correctional facilities; or you pass one large one with 6 campuses.  I don’t know, but I am confident of one thing.  I drove by “Florida Man’s” house.  Also, a point of legitimate security, if you visit, don’t pick up a hitch hiker.  It may be “Florida Man” himself.  The battlefield takes about an hour and a half to two hours to tour and trail walk.  I honestly feel that the State of Florida missed a significant opportunity with the museum.  Though the video was good, the television had a very small screen and the displays were well, small too.  I think there is opportunity for a much more robust interpretive center not only dedicated to the battle, but the entire Civil War experience in Florida.  The coastal raids by Federal Marines and Naval forces, the Battle of Olustee, Agriculture and the African American experience.  Florida’s Civil War history is much more robust than given credit for.  When I began walking the battlefield, for some reason, I instinctively slouched over and tried to adjust my ALICE pack straps a couple of times.  Moose kind of looked at me strangely and then it occurred to me, that I mentally was out in the swamps of Verona Loop Training Area of Camp Lejeune, NC because the pine forest and topography was so similar.  I could still feel the “war belt” harness cutting into my neck as I walked the trail of the 7th New Hampshire and 7th Connecticut.  When Moose and I walked the position of the Georgia Brigade, you could almost hear that quiet forest come alive and that rebel yell.  Then the trail got quiet for me as I reflected on why I had come to Florida in the first place.  For me it was literally “Life and Death under the Florida Sun.”  I could see the signs of battle, I could feel the uniform against my body and the weight of the pack and rifle again, but I also felt the burden of impending loss from my aunt, one of the few members of my father’s family I actually knew.   

The Battle of Olustee Marque as you enter the State Historic Site.
Moose doing valuable service as my assistant driver. In the Traveler House, the assistant driver has many real responsibilities.
Mock up of a member of the 7th New Hampshire or one of the other Northeastern Infantryman at Olustee. It is not a member of the 7th Connecticut as they had Spencer Repeating Rifles.
Mock up of a Georgia Brigade Soldier.
Confederate National Flag on display.
Ah the pines of the southeast! The approach to the State Historic Site.
Diorama of the fight at Olustee.
It can’t be a Civil War site without the split rail fence.
Monument to the Confederate troops under General Finnegan built by the Daughters of Confederate Veterans.
Confederate National Flag lofting over the site in the lazy Spring afternoon.
May is “Love Bug” month. Be advised that traveling in Florida with a black car in May can result in a messy car.
The pine forests of the Southeast bring back many memories of Camp Lejeune.
The reenactor area.

The Battle of Fort Titus – “We are not one people. We are two peoples… Between the two, conflict is inevitable.”

Lecompton KS:  When I had US history growing up, I was taught that the Civil War started in April of 1861 in Charleston Harbor.  I never really questioned how that “fact” came to be.  Most people won’t stop to question it either.  How did the Confederacy get an organized and coordinated military force to fire on Fort Sumter?  Where did those fetching grey uniforms come from?  Were they made overnight?  Well, the short answer is that the planning, coordination, logistics and response to the resupply of Fort Sumter had come long before April 12th.  Truth be told, the wheels were set in motion years before, and a state of “pseudo-war” existed prior to the November election of 1860.  One could make the argument that the War started sometime before April 12, 1861.  So when and where did the war actually start?  Well, a study of history on “Bleeding Kansas” during the Territorial Period, will tell you the first instance of organized militias doing battle with each other happened at a place called Black Jack, near Baldwin City, Kansas.  Though Black Jack is the first engagement of militias in combat with each other, the first battle of belligerents for actual political power would occur at a place called Fort Titus, where a pro-southern militia force had taken up arms in the Territorial Capital of Lecompton, Kansas.   In 1856, the single topic in Kansas was whether or not Kansas would enter the Union as a Slave State or a Free State and as we have already begun to explore, there was a great deal of violence between the two factions.  It was President Buchannan’s intent that Kansas enter the Union as a slave state so a balance of power be maintained.  Originally, Kansas had voted to come into the Union as such, but the vote was nullified because of too many folks from Missouri crossing the border to vote illegally in a Kansas election.   In 1857, the Kansas Legislature, which was largely pro-slavery, drafted the Lecompton Constitution, allowing slavery in Kansas.  The Lecompton Constitution was not ratified by Kansas voters.  In 1858 when the US House of Representatives took up the debate of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a slave or free state, there was actual violence on the floor of Congress. The Representatives from Pennsylvania and South Carolina traded blows, causing a 30-member brawl.  Per Vice President of the Confederacy, Alexander Stephens, “It was under the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution that a disastrous split took place in the Democratic Party.”  That split caused the Democratic Party to fracture and run multiple candidates in the 1860 election, thus allowing Abraham Lincoln to become elected with only 39% of the vote.  Once Kansas Territory entered the Union as a free state, politically speaking, the nation had been set on the glide path to war. 

More locally, Lecompton, the Kansas Territory capital, had experienced significant growth.  It was the hub of the pro-southern faction in Kansas and it housed one of the three area pro-southern militia forts used to blockade supplies and starve out the Free Staters in nearby Lawrence, Fort Titus.  It was here in Lecompton, Kansas Territory on August 16th, 1856 that the pseudo war between organized military style militias turned white hot.  By the end of the day, Fort Titus had been reduced by the Free State militia. The political situation was now in chaos and the collision course had been set. There would be no escaping of that orgy of carnage that was now beginning to sweep the land. 

When I started The Civil War Traveler Project, I knew at some point my travels would have to take me to the small village of Lecompton.  For years, driving by the signage right outside Lawrence, Kansas I would always see the one that read “Visit Historic Lecompton, where slavery began to die.”  Aided by the coming spring weather, it was time to hit the trail.  I had reached out to Paul Bahnmaier to schedule an interview. He is President of the Lecompton Historical Society and a member of the Lecompton Reenactors Troupe.  The Reenactors Troupe is a group of folks who perform events relevant to the period and recite speeches that were made during the Lecompton debates.  It was my honor that he gave Moose and I a personal guided tour of the Lecompton Territorial Capital building, still standing and made of fine Kansas stone.  The museum is located at 640 E. Woodson in Lecompton, KS 66050.  The tour of the museum lasted for an hour and a half or so and Paul was patient and very thorough on his explanation of how America went to war with itself.  For a surprise added bonus, Paul dawned the persona of Sheriff Samuel Jefferson Jones and recited one of his famous anti-abolitionist speeches. Jones played a very prominent role in the Kansas pro-southern movement.  After the speech, Paul took us over to tour the Democratic Party headquarters of Kansas Territory.  The one room stone building sits on a hill overlooking the Kansas River.  At one point the structure included a wooden portion, but it has been lost to time.  The history that happened within those walls in the run-up to the Civil War is exciting just to think about.  After we toured the Democratic headquarters, Paul took us over to Constitution Hall and we toured the building where the Lecompton Constitution was drafted. It was largely still intact with most of its original construction.  We spent a good deal of time in the meeting hall on the second level.  There, we were very privileged to see another member of the Lecompton Reenactors Troupe, Tim Rues, the Site Administrator for Constitution Hall.  He did a fantastic speech that Jim Lane, a Republican Senator and survivor of Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, gave when he was rallying people to the Abolitionist cause.  I am pleased to say that I captured both speeches on video and will be sharing them with you here on The Civil War Traveler. 

After our historical touring was complete, Moose let me know he could eat, as after all he is a growing offensive lineman.  We went over to one of two restaurants in town, Aunt Netter’s Café.  I will be issuing a review of them under the “Reviews” section.  It suffices to say that both Moose and I were very pleased with lunch.  We like to eat at local places when we can.  When I am not traveling, I love catching weekend breakfast with Household 6 at a local diner, as it feels like “home.”  Overall, I would plan on at least 4 hours in Lecompton.  You can get the gist much faster, but when I am in The Civil War Traveler mode, I tend not to be in a hurry.  It was just an outstanding day with meeting some excellent people and with the time change, I even had a chance to get to the range for some much-needed practice.  One last thought.  Since Lecompton is right off I-70 just west of Lawrence, KS, you could easily have a perfect “Bleeding Kansas” day by spending half the day in Lecompton and half the day in Lawrence.  So if you are in the area, you know where you need to go!

Interview with Paul Bahnmaier on the incredible historical significance of a very small town. Ground Zero of the US Civil War.

Senator Jim Lane historical overview.
Sheriff Jones’ Anti-abolitionist speech as given in 1856.
Jim Lane’s speech to rally Abolitionists as reported in the Leavenworth newspapers.
Democratic Headquarters in historic Lecompton. If these walls could talk, what would they say?
Welcome to Kansas Territory! Here in Lecompton, the territorial days were the town’s peak.
I use the term pseudo-war a lot when describing the Bleeding Kansas days. Read the sign. You see ranks such as “colonel” and “captain.” When you look at the amount of arms and cash seized, you must certainly recognize that both Free State and Pro-Southern Militias were being funded and armed from eastern elements.
A mock up of the reinforced cabin at Fort Titus.

Paul Bahnmaier was the perfect host and gave us a tour of the Territorial Capital Museum before the facility opened to the public.
The relics of the Battle of Fort Titus.
As The Civil War Traveler, I try to stay away from certain discussions as they pertain to the Civil War. I write this as a travel magazine to attract all interested. Though I don’t advance a view from the 1860s, I will say that reading the historical political debates in the lead up to the Civil War was fascinating! You can research them all here in Lecompton.
“Murica!” President Eisenhower’s parents were married in this building, the Lecompton Territorial Capital.
In December, Lecompton displays hundreds of different Christmas trees. I tried to get there last year, but the weather, time and life told me the visit would have to wait.
Tombstone of one of the victims of Quantrill’s raid on Lawrence. The man, James O’Neil was a resident of Lecompton.
Here the debate still rages. Come to Lecompton and see political figures from the era give speeches and interact with the public. Come and experience the thrill of the turbulent times of the past.
On the left, rabble rousing Republican Jim Lane, who would become a US Senator, gives his fiery Abolitionist speech. On the right, the beautiful splendor of the territorial capitol at its zenith.
To the left, the beautiful Kansas River and to the right, an artist’s depiction of the Battle of Fort Titus.
A side view of where the wooden portion of the Democratic Party headquarters would be. I can’t explain the bright orange light. May be a reflection….may be an orb. As always, I won’t tell you what to believe.
Inside the Democratic Party Headquarters. Is this where militias formed and organized?
Kansas Territorial Constitution Hall. In this building, the seeds were sown for the political divisions of the nation and the Civil War. Ladies and Gentlemen, make no mistake about it. This is Ground Zero of the US Civil War.
The original US Surveyor’s desk that created Kansas. Not the picture of President Buchannon above the desk.
A scene from the raucous Lecompton debates.
In this room, up on the raised stage, the Kansas Territorial elected representatives debated the future of not just a State, but also a Nation. This is the room in which we started to become the Americans that we are today. The sense of history and “self” was overwhelming. When we all today ask “who am I,” a part of us was decided in this room.
Paul explaining the politics of the time.
The Territorial Capital in early morning splendor on a quiet Sunday morning.